I’d actually never heard of Just 2 Seconds until a recent podcast interview Sam Harris did with it’s author, Gavin Debecker. As I have long recommended The Gift of Fear to people, this book published in 2008 was a happy find, as it directly addresses key elements I believe crucial to enhancing close quarters capabilities.
The book is fully titled Just 2 Seconds: Using Time and Space to Defeat Assassins and Other Adversaries, and while specifically directed toward those in the business of executive protection, the lessons offered are far broader, addressing things fundamental in all responses to close personal assault, relevant to many outside the “bodyguard” field.
As Debecker writes in Chapter 1:
“Professional protectors already know a lot about maintaining physical readiness, but it’s the mind that must first be properly prepared, the mind that controls the hands, arms, legs, and eyes. There are strategies available to help prepare warriors, based upon knowing how the body responds to lethal combat, what happens to your blood flow, your muscles, judgment, memory, vision, and your hearing when someone is trying to kill you. Police officers, soldiers, and protectors can learn how to keep going even if shot, and how to prepare the mind and body for survival instead of defeat. This is much more than mere information; the knowledge itself can be a kind of armor.” p.9
The knowledge offered in Just 2 Seconds breaks down thusly:
Succinct conceptual and practical stuff like this is tactical crack to me…
The first chapter, Now, discusses what can be gleaned from analysis of history and practical training exercises for dealing with them, laid out in the rest of the book.
Each chapter starts with a description of it’s Essential Lessons, in quotes below:
Chapter 2, Time:
“Attackers are profoundly handicapped by time, and ready protectors who are in position to respond can prevail, almost always.”
This chapter addresses the elements of initiative and how space affects them, embodied in a training drill that he puts his protectors through…
Chapter 3, Mind:
“All attacks happen at the same time: Now. If you intend to meet the attack, you must be there mentally, not just physically.”
Chapter 3 is interesting on several levels. Addressing “Zen in the Art of Protection,” De Becker provides an example of fluid awareness and mindset that should be very familiar to those in both tactical and meditative disciplines. He gives an easily followed description of how the mind should work during threat events. In so doing, he offers workable descriptions of concepts that are known in the Japanese arts as mushin, fudoshin, and zanshin; though he does not refer to them by name in his descriptions, he describes a more practical understanding of things than that of many martial arts “masters” without the benefit of the experience that De Becker and his team have.
A few notes rang flat for me. He discusses the importance of what is now widely known as force-on-force (FoF) training with Simunition marking cartridge ammunition (though now other vendors are in the market as well…). But he states that his is the only organization doing it – did he mean the only executive protection group? Of course he notes law enforcement was doing such training, but this book was published in 2008 – by then I had already trained extensively in FoF, not just on the job, but through private vendors, including intensive training through Strategos International’s Low Light Engagements instructor course, and in Craig Douglas’ Extreme Close Quarters Concepts.
DeBecker’s was certainly not the only group to be doing such indispensable training.
DeBecker also describes his groups use of dogs as a form of stress inoculation. He let’s the cat out of the bag (wait….what?), indicating that this used to be a secret within their academy – so that their prospective protectors would get the full benefit of the stress.
Of course all their people are wearing bite suits when they are conducting this training. He quotes one student as saying
“After you’ve fought with a few of those animals, grappling with a man is tame by comparison.” p. 76
Fair enough. I’ve been in a bite suit and worn a sleeve before, and can see some value in it as stress inoculation – that is when dealing with a dog – but I’m not so sure there is a direct transfer to hand-to-hand, armed grappling with a human, for a variety of reasons. I wonder whether he’s seen what happen in the Shivworks ECQC courses; there people grapple full contact – often with highly experienced grapplers – while using marking cartridges at contact distance. The experience is a gut check for some, and literally a defining moment for others, resulting in some soul-searching as to the practical value of much of what else is offered in the martial and tactical training communities.
These photos are from training conducted after the ECQC model; in this case the attacker, in brown pants, was assaulting an officer on the ground with a small knife.
If DeBecker is as yet unaware of this training, I strongly recommend it! The body guarding/protection industry would do well to embrace the lessons offered in Craig Douglas’ coursework.
The last two chapters are tailored more specifically to the fieldwork of protection details, however there are still lessons for anyone in a protective role, personally or professionally.
Chapter 4, Space:
“Every location contains inherent advantages and disadvantages; whatever hand you are dealt can be improved by advance work, set-up, and positioning.”
Space addresses the larger concerns of a protection detail and situational awareness about surrounding environs, including attack angles. A fascinating aspect of their research demonstrates that with 25 feet of space between a protectee and an attacker, protectee survival is “just about assured.” An interesting discussion of attacks coming from right or left is also presented.
And Chapter 5 See:
“In every environment, identify and assess the best suspects. They are always there.”
See means basically being suspicious, explained through it’s Latin root suspicere, or “to watch.” In practical terms it is awareness without distraction or fixation, recognizing and trusting intuition, and understanding that the “best” suspect in any environment is the one that most merits attention. Knowing what merits attention is where the other elements coalesce. To put it simply, it’s not just seeing, it’s sensing, feeling, and knowing what you are seeing as it happens, and taking appropriate action.
The remainder of the book is a lengthy compendium of attacks that De Becker and his group have assembled. An interesting read, not simply as a study in vulnerabilities but as a reminder of some incidents that have seemingly been forgotten. Several entries had me thinking “oh yeah, I forgot all about that!”
This is followed by appendices of a number of articles from both De Becker’s associates, reiterating concepts in the earlier chapters through examples and interviews, and others discussing different subject matter. For example, Ken Good’s Got a Second?, on the OODA Loop, is here, as is Grossman’s On Sheep, Wolves, and Sheepdogs.which suffers from some editing issues.
My feeling was that I would have rather seen a shorter book, the 142 pages of Chapters 1-5 plus maybe the De Becker appendices, and more explorations of that work. It is of a kind very important and often overlooked in the tactical and personal protection fields – that is, how your mind should be working during such incidents. This is mostly simply shorthanded as “mindset” by industry gurus and the hapless instructors that repeat it, and there is a hell of a lot more to it than that.
Perhaps the Compendium could have been included, but the sense is almost that it could have been a stand-alone book. At the least, the other Appendices are I think unnecessary, and the book without bibliography expands to 676 pages.
Worth wading through for Chapters 1-5. Check it out.